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LEGEND: future search for neutrinoless double beta decay with germanium detectors

The LEGEND collaboration wants to build a next-generation germanium-based experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. It was formed as a follow-up to the GERDA and MAJORANA collaborations. The GERDA experiment is operated with about 40 kg of Germanium. LEGEND will have a first phase with 200 kg of Germanium installed in the GERDA cryostat in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The final goal is to build an experiment based on one ton of germanium with a new infrastructure.

Neutrinoless double-beta decay is only possible if neutrinos are their own antiparticle. Whether they are or not is not known, even though neutrinos are a fundamental ingredient for nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and the evolution of the universe  and, thus, well researched. If they are their own antiparticle, this also contributes to one possible explanation  for the disappearance of antimatter.

Neutrinoless double-beta decay is, even if it exists, an extremely rare phenomenon. Observing it is impossible in the presence of the normal level of natural radioactivity, which creates background events, i.e. events that look like signal events but are not. Therefore, experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay have to be extremely well shielded against radioactive background originating from surrounding materials and against cosmic radiation.

In order to minimize the influence of penetrating cosmic radiation, the experiments must be conducted very deep underground. The two laboratories SNOLAB in Canada and CJPL are the deepest in the world and both are well suited. In addition, all parts used to build  the experiment itself have to be made of specially selected materials which contain as little radioactivity as possible. The overall background level has to be reduced by at least one order of magnitude compared to the GERDA and MAJORANA experiments.

Research for LEGEND

To realize the LEGEND project, scientists at the MPI for Physics have initiated three subprojects.


The goal is to design improved detectors in which background can be better identified.



The goal is to study cosmic-muon-induced  neutrons which cause an especially dangerous background.


The goal is to provide an active veto against radioactive background and at the same time hold and protect the germanium detectors.

Further information on the LEGEND collaboration

Group members

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Abt, Iris, Dr.

Scientist 295 117

Caldwell, Allen, Prof. Dr.

Director 529 212

Fischer, Felix

PhD-Student 280 135

Gooch, Christopher

Engineering 242 115

Guitart Corominas, Maria

Student 566 115

Hagemann, Felix

PhD-Student 327 112

Hauertmann, Lukas

PhD-Student 764 112

Liu, Xiang, Ph.D.

Scientist 415 114

Majorovits, Béla, PD Dr.

Scientist 262 118

Manzanillas, Luis

Postdoc 280 135

Schulz, Oliver, Dr.

Scientist 521 113

Schuster, Martin

PhD-Student 327 112

Wacker, Ina

Secretary 207 213

Zsigmond, Anna Julia, Dr.

Postdoc 337 116

Key publications

Alpha-event and surface characterisation in segmented true-coaxial HPGe detectors
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 858 (2017) 80-89

The GALATEA test-facility for high purity germanium detectors
Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A 782 (2015) 56

Measurement of the temperature dependence of pulse lengths in an n-type germanium detector
Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 56 (2011) 10104

Pulse shape simulation for segmented true-coaxial HPGe detectors
Eur. Phys. J. C 68, 609-618 (2010)

Neutron Interactions as Seen by A Segmented Germanium Detector
Eur. Phys. J. A 36, 139-149 (2008)

Characterization of the first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type prototype detector for the GERDA project Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A 577 (2007) 574